The Proto Renaissance
Simone Martini (c. 1280/85-1344)
The Annunciation, 1333
(egg tempera and gold on panel)
The Proto Renaissance is the name given to that uncertain period of transition in Italian art as the creative influence of the Byzantine tradition began to decline. Artists saw the need for a more relevant art form that reflected the aspirations of an ambitious Italy, desperate to emerge from the stagnation of its medieval past.
During the Proto Renaissance, there was a gradual development of naturalism in Italian art which was inspired by the values of Classical humanism and the anatomical beauty of Classical sculpture. You can see the start of this process when you compare two paintings by Duccio and Giotto.
DUCCIO DI BUONINSEGNA (c.1255-1315)
'Maestà' (the Virgin in Her Majesty), 1308-11
(egg tempera and gold on panel)
In Duccio's 'Maestà', the huge altarpiece that he painted for Siena Cathedral, the artist still has one foot stuck in the flat frontal conventions of Byzantine composition. The other tries to free itself through the greater naturalism of the figures, as they turn to focus on the Christ child or, in a few distracted cases, on one another.
'The Betrayal of Christ', 1303-06
In Giotto's 'Betrayal of Christ', a scene from his fresco cycle of the Life of Christ in the Arena Chapel in Padua, the naturalism of his figures and their layered composition is turned up a notch to let the dramatic narrative unfold in a more naturalistic space. The figures have a greater three-dimensional form, more expressive body language and eye contact, with a particular focus on the revealing look between Jesus and Judas, just at the moment of his betrayal.
The main artists associated with the Proto Renaissance are:
- Giotto di Bondonne (c.1267-1337) - Florence
- Duccio di Buoninsegna (c.1255/60-1319) - Sienna
- Simone Martini (1284-1344) - Sienna
- Ambrogio Lorenzetti (c.1290-1352) - Sienna
- Pietro Lorenzetti (c.1280-1348) - Sienna
The Early Renaissance
'The Tribute Money', c.1424-27
Click the icon to view perspective study.
The Early Renaissance is mainly associated with the city of Florence as the birthplace of the movement and as its main centre of artistic innovation. Early Renaissance art introduces a greater degree of naturalism by placing an emphasis on the observational drawing of the human figure. It also establishes a more precise spatial organization of the figures, buildings and landscapes through the invention of perspective drawing.
PAOLO UCCELLO (1397-1475)
LEFT PANEL: 'Battle of San Romano', c.1438-40
(egg tempera on poplar panel)
Humanistic subject matter, based on the study of Classical mythology, along with portraiture and landscape evolved as acceptable subjects for art during The Early Renaissance. This marks a shift from the exclusive position held by religious art.
Some artists, for example Masaccio, Fra Angelico and Piero della Francesca, followed in the footsteps of Giotto by increasing the degree of naturalism in painting within the traditional themes of Christian art. Others, such as Paolo Uccello and Sandro Botticelli, advanced the same aesthetic ideals by using secular subjects to reflect the historical and classical interests of their wealthy patrons.
The main artists associated with the Early Renaissance are:
- Masaccio (1401-28) -Florence
- Donatello (1386-1466) - Florence
- Fra Angelico (1387-1455) - Florence
- Paulo Uccello (1397-1475) -Florence
- Fra Filippo Lippi (c.1406-69) - Florence
- Piero della Francesca (1416-92) - Umbria
- Andrea Mantegna (1430-1506) - Padua, Mantua
- Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510) - Florence, Rome
- Pietro Perugino (1450-1523) - Umbria
The High Renaissance
Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519)
'Mona Lisa', c.1503-06
(oil on panel)
The High Renaissance relocated to Rome which became the cultural capital of the movement under the generous patronage of successive popes. Giorgio Vasari writes about this period (which he calls the 'third manner') as the highest peak of artistic achievement in which Renaissance art reached an unsurpassed level of grandeur. Some individual artists and their patrons also gained recognition for their local regions in Central Italy through the creation of significant artworks.
RAPHAEL SANZIO (1483-1520)
'The Transfiguration', 1516-20
(egg tempera on a poplar panel)
Click on the flip icon to view the composition structure.
The path to realism in art reached its peak in the sixteenth century with Leonardo, Michelangelo and Raphael who achieved the classical ideals that artists had pursued since the Proto-Renaissance. The general character of this art was classical and intellectual in its concept, focusing on ideas relating to the structure, form, proportion and the arrangement of figures within a formally balanced composition.
MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI (1475-1564)
'The Last Judgement', 1535-41
Although these three great masters have come to personify the art of the High Renaissance, each offers a unique character in their art that reflects their individual personality:
- The intense observation, invention and psychological insights of Leonardo.
- The graceful proportions, harmony and atmosphere in the paintings of Raphael.
- The heroic power and form of the human figure in Michelangelo.
The main artists associated with the High Renaissance are:
- Leonardo da Vinci (1452 -1519) - Florence, Milan, France
- Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) - Florence, Rome
- Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520) - Umbria, Rome
- Fra Bartolommeo (1472-1517) - Florence
- Dosso Dossi (c.1474/79-1542) - Ferrara
- Andrea del Sarto (1486-1530) – Florence
- Antonio Allegri Correggio (1489-1534) – Parma
The Venetian Renaissance
'The Castelfranco Madonna', c. 1503-05
(oil on panel)
The Venetian Renaissance gave rise to a different character of art with a stronger emphasis on color, pattern and atmosphere.
During the 15th century, Venice was the most prosperous city in Italy due to its favorable location on the Adriatic Sea for trade with the vast Byzantine empire to the East. It was a cosmopolitan port that traded in timber, exotic spices, luxuriant lace and silks, Islamic porcelain and metalwork, and colorful minerals and dyes. The city was built on a group of small islands separated by canals whose shimmering reflections illuminate the area with a special quality of light. This peculiar blend of economic, cultural and topographical conditions combined to inspire paintings with a more vibrant use of color.
While artists from Florence and Rome were more concerned about using the rational elements of line, shape and form to construct an ordered vision that reflected their classical mindset, Venetian artists more naturally engaged with the sensually charged elements of color and light to create an atmospheric reflection of their world.
GIOVANNI BELLINI (1430-1516)
'Saint Francis in Ecstasy', c.1475-80
(oil on panel)
The artist responsible for transforming painting in Venice was Giovanni Bellini. He experimented with the new technique of oil painting to create radiant images whose atmosphere was modelled with luminous color and delicate tone. His stunning landscape backgrounds rank among the greatest in the history of art.
'Bacchus and Ariadne', 1520–23
(oil on canvas)
Giorgione (Giorgio Barbarelli) and Titian (Tiziano Vecelli), both students of Bellini, took up their master's mantle developing the atmospheric and expressive qualities of oil paint. When Bellini died, Titian went on to become the supreme master of the Venetian Renaissance, excelling in every genre with a style of spontaneous brushwork in his later paintings that unshackled painting technique for future generations of artists.
'Ariadne, Venus and Bacchus', c.1576
(oil on canvas)
The last master of the Venetian Renaissance was Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti). His weightless figures, angular perspectives, dramatic lighting and vigorous brushwork create a uniquely personal vision of his subjects which, although criticized in his own time for their unorthodox technique, are appreciated today for their individuality and freedom of expression.
The main artists associated with the Venetian Renaissance are:
- Giovanni Bellini (1430-1516) - Venice
- Giorgione (1476-1510) - Venice
- Titian (1487-1576) - Venice, Rome
- Tintoretto (1518-94) - Venice